Chronic Kidney Disease is the most common cause of kidney failure, accounting for approximately 75% of cases. It is the end stage of many diseases that damage the kidneys over time including diabetes and high blood pressure. Chronic Kidney Disease can lead to End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD), which means your kidneys no longer work well enough to filter wastes from your blood or make urine that contains little or no waste products at all. People with ESRD must have dialysis or a kidney transplant in order to live longer than 6 months after diagnosis (1).
Nursing Diagnosis Chronic Kidney Disease
1 Acute Pain related to the presence of uremic symptoms, IHD, peripheral edema, gum bleeding and chest pain
Acute pain related to the presence of uremic symptoms, IHD, peripheral edema, gum bleeding and chest pain
Pain is one of the most common symptoms in patients with CKD. It can be caused by uremia, ischemic heart disease (IHD), peripheral edema, gum bleeding or chest pain. For example: A patient may experience abdominal discomfort due to liver failure or chronic kidney disease that leads to a build up of ammonia in their blood stream. Another symptom of this build up is an increase in your acidity levels which causes stomach discomfort and an upset stomach for many people experiencing this problem. In addition to these symptoms being painful for you can also lead to other complications such as vomiting or nausea if left untreated for too long without treatment options available such as medications from your doctor before hand that help ease some of these symptoms so they don’t cause further problems going forward within yourself as well as any other diseases/health conditions that could affect anyone else around yourself before hand – especially if not treated properly beforehand which means going under different lifestyle changes necessary (like losing weight) etcetera…
2 Risk for Infection related to decreased immune function
Risk for Infection related to decreased immune function
Infections can occur when the immune system is weakened, compromised, impaired or affected. In chronic kidney disease, the kidneys are unable to remove waste products from the blood. This can make you more susceptible to infections such as urinary tract infections (UTIs), pneumonia and sepsis.
3 Risk For Fluid Volume Deficit related to increased fluid loss from polyuria and vomiting
Risk for Fluid Volume Deficit related to increased fluid loss from polyuria and vomiting.
Fluid volume deficit is a common disorder in patients with CKD, which may result from decreased fluid intake or increased urine output. Increased urine output is a direct consequence of polyuria (excessive urination) as well as polydipsia (excessive thirst). Polyuria also causes dehydration by increasing the osmolality of your blood plasma, thereby decreasing osmolarity gradient and drawing water out through osmosis into your cells. Vomiting can cause profound dehydration because of both the loss of large volumes of fluids and electrolytes in the vomit along with decreased absorption due to inflammation in the intestine. Nausea could increase risk for dehydration by limiting intake of fluids during meals; it could also reduce appetite enough that food intake is not sufficient to maintain adequate energy stores needed to maintain normal body weight and function
4 Imbalanced Nutrition: Less Than Body Requirements related to anorexia, nausea and vomiting
- Nausea and vomiting
- Decreased appetite
- Weight loss
- Muscle weakness/fatigue, impaired physical mobility, impaired skin integrity, impaired urinary elimination, impaired immune function
5 Altered urinary elimination related to excessive fluid loss.
In this stage of renal disease, the kidneys are unable to filter the urine properly. As a result, you may experience:
- Decreased urinary output
- Increased concentration of urine (urine specific gravity)
- Increased pH in your blood and tissues (metabolic alkalosis)
In addition to these symptoms, excessive fluid loss through the kidneys can also lead to symptoms related to dehydration such as dry mouth, thirst, headache and fatigue.
6 Risk for impaired skin integrity related to uncontrolled pruritus
- Risk for impaired skin integrity related to uncontrolled pruritus: Pruritus is defined as an urge to scratch. It is common in CRF and can be caused by reduced renal function, dehydration, and uremic toxins. Pruritus can be treated with antihistamines, topical steroids (e.g., hydrocortisone), or oral opiates (e.g., oxycodone).
7 Impaired Physical Mobility related to muscle weakness and fatigue
Impaired physical mobility related to muscle weakness and fatigue
This is defined as a weakening of the muscles, with some loss of muscle tone. As a result, you may have difficulty getting around or performing everyday tasks. You might experience fatigue and tiredness that limits your ability to work, exercise or play normally.
8 Chronic renal failure occurs over a long duration of time
Chronic kidney disease, or CKD, occurs over a long duration of time. It’s considered chronic because it doesn’t have a cure and can result in permanent damage to your kidneys that may lead to end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
This is a progressive condition; as your kidneys deteriorate they begin to lose their ability to filter waste products from your blood stream. As this happens, the amount of fluid remaining in your blood increases while waste products build up inside your body. Over time this can lead to complications such as high blood pressure or fatigue.
A degenerative condition refers to an irreversible process caused by aging or illness that cannot be reversed through medical intervention but must be managed through treatment with medication or lifestyle changes such as diet modification and exercise programs designed specifically for those suffering from chronic conditions such as CKD patients who live with ESRD must follow strict guidelines outlining what foods need avoided lest they risk further complications arising due their dietary choices (which may include diabetes) which could delay recovery from surgery/transplantation procedures performed soon after diagnosis is made; these include avoiding alcohol consumption–which can worsen existing symptoms–as well as sodium intake restrictions placed upon patients based on pre-existing conditions
Chronic renal failure is a disease that occurs over a long duration of time. It can be identified by certain symptoms and is treated with dialysis or a kidney transplant.