Nursing Intervention High Blood Pressure
1 Before giving your patient the BP medication, determine the reason for the high BP.
Before giving the medication, you should determine the reason for the high BP. The medication may not be appropriate for this patient. For example, if their BP is high because they are dehydrated and need fluids, then giving them an antihypertensive drug is not going to help at all. In fact, it could make matters worse if it causes fluid retention (more on this below).
It’s also possible that your initial assumption was correct—the patient does have hypertension—but you missed something important when assessing their condition. If that’s the case, then starting them on a blood pressure lowering medication would be beneficial but could also complicate things further by causing side effects or interacting badly with other medications they’re taking. This is why doctors always want a full medical history before prescribing any drugs: There are many factors involved in determining what drug works best for each patient (elderly people respond differently than young people; some people will become resistant to certain drugs over time).
2 Ask about the patient’s diet.
- Ask about the patient’s diet.
It is important to know whether your patient has a healthy diet, or if their food choices are contributing to their high blood pressure. If you find that the patient’s diet is unhealthy, discuss ways in which they can improve it. Dietary changes may help prevent high blood pressure and should be recommended as part of treatment.
- Avoid high-fat foods, sodium, and caffeine. High amounts of fat can raise your blood pressure over time; so it is best to avoid fatty meats like bacon, hot dogs and sausage; buttery pastries like pies, doughnuts and muffins; gravy; creamy sauces or dressings on salads; cheese sauces such as macaroni & cheese and lasagna with lots of cheeses (cottage cheese). Limit fried foods such as French fries and onion rings because they contain saturated fat (a form of cholesterol). Sodium raises blood pressure too much by causing water retention in the body which increases heart workloads – avoid salty snacks like salted nuts/seeds/popcorn etc., canned soups with added salt content at home or any other processed foods with added salt (e g deli meats/cheese slices/canned tuna fish etc.). Caffeine (found in coffee/tea) acts on our central nervous system creating an immediate boost while increasing heart rate temporarily but long term use may cause chronic effects such as increased risk for heart attack stroke due to reduced flow through coronary arteries.”
3 Consider other causes of high BP such as anesthesia or anemia.
- Consider other causes of high BP. Other conditions can also cause hypertension. Some of the more common causes include hypothyroidism and Cushing’s syndrome, which are caused by increased production of cortisol; hyperaldosteronism, which is caused by increased production of aldosterone; pheochromocytoma (a tumor that produces excess adrenaline); anemia; and kidney disease.
- Assess for anesthesia or surgery complications. Untreated blood pressure can lead to heart failure or stroke if left untreated for too long. Anesthesia-related symptoms may include dizziness, vomiting and chest pain after surgery due to decreased oxygen levels in the body during anesthesia (this effect is called postoperative pulmonary edema).
4 Notify medical personnel such as a nurse, physician, ED staff or others of changes in vital signs.
As nurses, we are responsible for monitoring our patients’ vital signs and communicating any changes to the medical staff. When BP is higher than normal, notify the medical team immediately. If it’s lower than normal, notify them as well.
If the patient’s pulse is higher than usual or within a certain range (such as 120-140 beats per minute if it’s not their heart rate), notify the medical team right away.
5 Do not give more than one dose of medication at a time.
- Do not give more than one dose of medication at a time.
- Give two doses of medication at the same time to prevent high blood pressure?
6 If you have questions about the effect of your choice of treatment, ask repeat readings and consult with your supervising physician.
If you have questions about the effect of your choice of treatment, ask repeat readings and consult with your supervising physician.
- Call 911 if a patient’s blood pressure is consistently above 180/110.
- Call the patient’s primary care provider to discuss options and obtain more information, if needed.
- If you are unable to reach another provider and suspect that an emergency exists, call 911 or other emergency services immediately.
7 Monitor your patient for signs of hypotension (low blood pressure), arrhythmias (abnormal rhythm), regurgitation of gastric contents and other symptoms.
Monitoring your patient for signs of hypotension (low blood pressure), arrhythmias (abnormal rhythm), regurgitation of gastric contents and other symptoms is important. If you have questions about the effect of your choice of treatment, ask repeat readings and consult with your supervising physician.
8 Preventing or treating hypertension might require changes in medication or lifestyle.
If you have high blood pressure, the first step in preventing or treating it is to see your doctor. Your healthcare provider will likely recommend lifestyle changes, such as eating a healthy diet and getting regular exercise. He or she may also suggest reducing salt and fat intake, losing weight if you need to lose weight, cutting back on alcohol consumption or quitting smoking (if applicable).